The sex hormone testosterone can boost sexual desire and performance, but it also affects mood and anxiety, says the Mayo Clinic.
Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle affects men and women differently, and it can be affected by many factors, from diet and exercise to hormones in the environment.
A new study by the Mayo clinic found that women who had a high estrogen content in their bodies experienced an increased risk of anxiety, depression and mood disorders.
For example, women who were more anxious had a greater risk of heart disease, dementia and premature death, according to the study.
Women who were heavier in the estrogen metabolite estradiol had a higher risk of mood disorders and depression, the Mayo study found.
The study also found that there were differences in the way men and menopausal women respond to testosterone therapy.
Researchers compared the menstrual cycle to other characteristics of men and found that men with a high testosterone concentration in their blood were more likely to be anxious, depressed and moody, compared to women with low levels of testosterone.
“In our previous studies, we showed that estrogen was associated with anxiety and depression in women, but not in men,” said study co-author Jennifer J. Miller, MD, an assistant professor of psychiatry at Mayo Clinic and an associate professor of medicine at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.
Miller, who studies stress, said estrogen in women was also associated with an increased heart rate and a higher cortisol level in men.
She said the findings support the notion that estrogen plays a role in the stress response.
“We also found the relationship was stronger for men with low testosterone levels and for menopausal females,” Miller said.
She added that hormone replacement therapy, also known as hormone therapy, is recommended for women, although many women find it difficult to get it.
The Mayo study was published in the journal Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.